A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device.


In recent years, the 2400 bits per second modem that could carry e-mail has become obsolete. 14.4 Kbps and 28.8 Kbps modems were temporary landing places on the way to the much higher bandwidth devices and carriers of tomorrow. From early 1998, most new personal computers came with 56 Kbps modems. By comparison, using a digital Integrated Services Digital Network adapter instead of a conventional modem, the same telephone wire can now carry up to 128 Kbps. With Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) systems, now being deployed in a number of communities, bandwidth on twisted-pair can be in the megabit range.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the type of pathogen. For other uses, see Virus (disambiguation).
For a more accessible and less technical introduction to this topic, see Introduction to viruses.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.[1]

Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898,[2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail,[3] although there are millions of types.[4] Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity.[5][6] The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.

While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. These viral particles, also known as virions, consist of two or three parts: (i) the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information; (ii) a protein coat, called the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat when they are outside a cell. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. The average virion is about one one-hundredth the size of the average bacterium.

The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity.[7] Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection. However they lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life",[8] and as replicators.[9]

Viruses spread in many ways; viruses in plants are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. These disease-bearing organisms are known as vectors. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The range of host cells that a virus can infect is called its "host range". This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many.[10]

Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed


How to remove malware from your Windows PC

Clean out and restore your PC to its pristine state.

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Is your computer running slower than usual? Are you getting lots of pop-ups? Have you seen other weird problems crop up? If so, your PC might be infected with a virus, spyware, or other malware—even if you have an antivirus program installed. Though other problems such as hardware issues can produce similarly annoying symptoms, it’s best to check for malware if your PC is acting up and we’ll show you how to do it yourself.

Step 1: Enter Safe Mode

Before you do anything, you need to disconnect your PC from the internet, and don’t use it until you’re ready to clean your PC. This can help prevent the malware from spreading and/or leaking your private data.

If you think your PC may have a malware infection, boot your PC into Microsoft’s Safe Mode. In this mode, only the minimum required programs and services are loaded. If any malware is set to load automatically when Windows starts, entering in this mode may prevent it from doing so. This is important because it allows the files to be removed easier since they’re not actually running or active. 

Sadly, Microsoft has turned the process of booting into safe mode from a relatively easy process in Windows 7 and Windows 8 to one that is decidedly more complicated in Windows 10. To boot into Windows Safe Mode, first click the Start Button in Windows 10 and select the Power button as if you were going to reboot, but don’t click anything. Next hold down the Shift key and click Reboot. When the full-screen menu appears, select Troubleshooting, then Advanced Options, then Startup Settings. On the next window click the Restart button and wait for the next screen to appear (just stick with us here, we know this is long). Next you will see a menu with numbered startup options; select number 4, which is Safe Mode. Note that if you want to connect to any online scanners you’ll need to select option 5, which is Safe Mode with Networking. 

You may find that your PC runs noticeably faster in Safe Mode. This could be a sign that your system has a malware infection, or it could mean that you have a lot of legitimate programs that normally start up alongside Windows. If your PC is outfitted with a solid state drive it’s probably fast either way. 

Step 2: Delete temporary files

You can use Windows 10’s built-in disk cleanup utility to rid your system of unnecessary temp files. 

Now that you’re in Safe Mode, you’ll want to run a virus scan. But before you do that, delete your temporary files. Doing this may speed up the virus scanning, free up disk space, and even get rid of some malware. To use the Disk Cleanup utility included with Windows 10 just type Disk Cleanup in the search bar or after pressing the Start button and select the tool that appears named Disk Cleanup.

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Step 3: Download malware scanners

Now you’re ready to have a malware scanner do its work—and fortunately, running a scanner is enough to remove most standard infections. If you already had an antivirus program active on your computer, you should use a different scanner for this malware check, since your current antivirus software may not have detected the malware. Remember, no antivirus program can detect 100 percent of the millions of malware types and variants.

There are two types of antivirus programs. You’re probably more familiar with real-time antivirus programs, which run in the background and constantly watch for malware. Another option is an on-demand scanner, which searches for malware infections when you open the program manually and run a scan. You should have only one real-time antivirus program installed at a time, but you can have many on-demand scanners installed to run scans with multiple programs, thereby ensuring that if one program misses something a different one might find it.

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If you think your PC is infected, we recommend using an on-demand scanner first and then following up with a full scan by your real-time antivirus program. Among the free (and high-quality) on-demand scanners available are BitDefender Free Edition, Kaspersky Virus Removal Tool, Malwarebytes, Microsoft’s Malicious Software Removal Tool, Avast, and SuperAntiSpyware.

Step 4: Run a scan with Malwarebytes

For illustrative purposes, we’ll describe how to use the Malwarebytes on-demand scanner. To get started, download it. If you disconnected from the internet for safety reasons when you first suspected that you might be infected, reconnect to it so you can download, install, and update Malwarebytes; then disconnect from the internet again before you start the actual scanning. If you can’t access the internet or you can’t download Malwarebytes on the infected computer, download it on another computer, save it to a USB flash drive, and take the flash drive to the infected computer.

After downloading Malwarebytes, run the setup file and follow the wizard to install the program. Once the program opens, keep the default scan option (“Threat Scan”) selected and click the Start Scan button. It should check for updates before it runs the scan, so just make sure that happens before you proceed. 


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How to Use Photos on Your Website Without Getting into Legal Trouble

Monday, October 24, 2016 Creative Content Tips , Trends & Tips 0 comments

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We all know the saying that a picture is worth a thousand words. In that case, two pictures in an article on your website must be worth 2,000 words. Right?

Not necessarily. On social media, a photo is generally worth a certain number of likes, tweets, pins, stumbles, or shares. It might be worth only a few likes or maybe a few hundred or even a few thousand.

Yes, using images on your website is a top priority if you want readers to enjoy your site.

You can be sure that if you don't use images on your site, traffic will be low. Today's best writing techniques involve writing stories to get your readers involved in your post. And there is no better way to express the feeling in a story than with captivating images.

Suggested reading: Increase Sales: How to Use Storytelling on Your Business Website

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Who Owns Online Photos?

You probably know that photos are copyrighted and legally belong to the photographer. Copyright is automatic – the photographer does not have to file special paperwork for his photos to be copyrighted.

When you find the perfect photo, you do not have the right to use it – even if you give credit to the photographer. If you do, you are taking a huge risk and can be taken to court and forced to pay a pretty hefty fine.

What About 'Fair Use'?

'Fair use' circumvents the photographer's copyright by allowing 'limited and reasonable' use of a photo by someone who is not the photographer. But determining whether your use of a photo qualifies for 'fair use' can be daunting. It's better to avoid walking the very thin line that balances the photographer's rights with the public interest.

How, then, can you find images to use and still avoid a legal battle? The first step is to ask the photographer for permission. You might be pleasantly surprised. Some photographers would like to become better known and might give you permission as long as you credit him by name.

Your request should include –
  • a link to the photo that you want to use
  • a link to the website (or even better: the specific page or post) where you want to use the photo
  • information about whether your use is commercial, non-commercial, academic, educational
  • how you plan to use the image – as is or with some changes
  • a question about how to give credit to the photographer

The Easy Way: Buy Stock Photos

Unfortunately, it can be difficult to find out who the photographer of a particular photo is. So more often, you would go to a stock photo site and buy a photo in order to obtain the copyright license.

There are many stock photo sites that have thousands upon thousands of images for sale. You search according to the topic of the photos you need for your article.

The problem is that it can be very expensive to buy two or three stock images for each article that you publish on your website or blog. Stock photo sites often do not allow individual purchases. Instead, they require you to buy a subscription. For example, BigStock subscription prices look like this –
  • 5 images/day or 150 images/month for $79/month - $0.53/image
  • 10 images/day or 300 images/month for $99/month - $0.33/image
  • 50 images/month with no daily limit for $79/month - $1.58/image
One of the major problems with the first two plans that have a less expensive price per image is that you have to download either five or ten each day in order to get the maximum number allowed per month. If you miss downloading five images today, they expire – they don't roll over to tomorrow.

The third plan is more flexible, but images are more expensive.

DepositPhotos is another stock photo site but is less expensive. They do not have as huge a selection as BigStock, but still, with millions of images, you can probably find what you want.

The best thing about DepositPhotos is that a couple of times a year, they have a special sale via AppSumo, who acts like their agent. The last time, the deal included 100 images for $39 that never expire.

If you sign up for a free account at AppSumo, you'll receive email announcements about special deals. When you find out about the special for DepositPhotos, you need to buy it very quickly because it always sells out.

Suggested reading: How to Make Your Website More Attractive

Use Public Domain or Royalty Free Images

There are millions and millions of high-quality photos you can use without worry. Just because they're free does not mean that they are low quality. They are merely photos whose copyright has expired or never even existed for some reason.

Do a Google search for 'public domain image + topic' or 'royalty free image + topic.' In other words, if you want some public domain photos of dogs, Google 'public domain image dog' or 'royalty free image dog,' and you will find plenty of choices.

The Cheaper Way: Creative Commons

There are free stock photo sites like Pixabay and Pexels that have images free of copyrights. According to information on Pixabay's FAQ page, "All pictures are released under Creative Commons CC0 into the public domain."

Or you can go directly to Creative Commons search page to look for images that you don't have to pay for.

It's Just Not Worth the Risk

There is no need to risk a lawsuit over using a copyrighted image. You can see that there are plenty of inexpensive or free ways to find high-quality images to use on your website. Be sure to include images on your website, but do it the right way.

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Author: Kate Benzin